A classification of hull operators in archimedean lattice-ordered groups with unit

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of Mathematics, Nova Southeastern University, 3301 College Ave., Fort Lauderdale, FL, 33314, USA.

2 Department of Mathematics and CS, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459.


The category, or class of algebras, in the title is denoted by $\bf W$. A hull operator (ho) in $\bf W$ is a reflection in the category consisting of $\bf W$ objects with only essential embeddings as morphisms. The proper class of all of these is $\bf hoW$. The bounded monocoreflection in $\bf W$ is denoted $B$. We classify the ho's by their interaction with $B$ as follows. A ``word'' is a function $w: {\bf hoW} \longrightarrow {\bf W}^{\bf W}$ obtained as a finite composition of $B$ and $x$ a variable ranging in $\bf hoW$. The set of these,``Word'', is in a natural way a partially ordered semigroup of size $6$, order isomorphic to ${\rm F}(2)$, the free $0-1$ distributive lattice on $2$ generators. Then, $\bf hoW$ is partitioned into $6$ disjoint pieces, by equations and inequations in words, and each piece is represented by a characteristic order-preserving quotient of Word ($\approx {\rm F}(2)$). Of the $6$: $1$ is of size $\geq 2$, $1$ is at least infinite, $2$ are each proper classes, and of these $4$, all quotients are chains; another $1$ is a proper class with unknown quotients; the remaining $1$ is not known to be nonempty and its quotients would not be chains.


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